Ineu Castle

Ineu (Hungarian: Borosjenő, Turkish: Yanova) is a town in Arad County, western Transylvania, Romania. It is situated at a distance of 57 km from the county capital Arad, and it is the main entrance gate in Zărand Land. Ineu was first attested in documents in the year 1214 under the name villa Ieneu. It was a sanjak in Timişoara and Varad eyalets as "Yanova" during Ottoman rule.

The traces of habitation of this area are lost in the darkness of time. Archeologists have excavated finds belonging to the Neolithic (axes with hole, silex, ceramics), to the Dacian civilization, to the Roman occupation (fortress lines, ornaments, arms, millstones) and sources that attest the continuation of inhabitancy on these areas. Ineu has been the residence of a Romanian principality (cnezat), it is also well-known as a strong reinforced center.

The Ineu Castle is mentioned also as a fortress even from 1295. Having a strategic position in the defense of Transylvania, the castle had a life full of vicissitudes. It belonged to the fortresses of Ioan (or Iancu) de Hunedoara (Hungarian: Hunyadi János), it was occupied by the Turks for several times (1566, 1658), it was the residence of an Ottoman territorial unit, it was transferred in the possession of Mihai Viteazul (Michael the Brave) in 1599, it was conquered by the Hapsburgs (end of 17th century), it was a garrison of a frontier guard regiment (1700–1745). These periods and events have left their marks upon the town's development.

The developing of military technology, especially of the artillery, required the reconstruction of the citadel for the new conditions of struggle. Therefore, since 1645, the works were executed under the leadership of Gabriel Haller, who studied architecture in Italy and adopted original military solutions to suit late Renaissance style. The citadel consisted actually of two parts. First, the inner fortress with two levels, existing until today, has the form of square, with circular leveled bastions at the corners. The towers allowed effective action of artillery, the traces of openings adapted to the canons still existing. The second defense element was located outside, at a distance of several hundred meters, and was a squared stone walls belt with bastions at the corners. The walls were surrounded on three sides by ditches with water, on the fourth side flowing Crişul Alb River.

After the year 1870 it was rebuilt from its ruins in neoclassic style with late Renaissance and Baroque elements. In the period of the Revolution in 1848-1849, Ineu was an important center of the national movements, and it kept this status even in the period between the two world wars.